What the research says
There is well-established international evidence that students from the lowest income homes do not achieve well at school and are less likely to progress into further and higher education. The pupil premium (PP) was introduced in England in 2011 to give schools additional funding to overcome the attainment gap between students from disadvantaged backgrounds and their more affluent peers.
Here we summarise the findings of review of the research which has examined the pupil premium since its introduction. The review examined 106 academic papers published between 2010 and 2020. Among its key findings are that it is difficult to demonstrate the impact of the pupil premium on either the academic outcomes of students nationally or their wellbeing and future employment prospects. The summary offers more detail and identifies key research papers.